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POLISHING ANTIQUE FURNITURE

THE HONEY BEE

BY JOHN FISKE AND LISA FREEMAN

ONTARIO BEEKEEPERS ASSOCIATION
Originally compiled by Glen K. Hester

The aim of polishing is to build a deep patina that you can really see down into. Only wax will do this. A deep wax polish is very different from a surface gloss, and is the only appropriate finish for formal antique furniture.
This article contains some general information about care of antique furniture as well as tips and solutions to common problems. Click on any topic listed below, or scroll down to read the entire article.
Honeybees have been present on the Earth for millions of years. One of the oldest agricultural pursuits known to man is beekeeping. Early settlers to North America had a limited and expensive source of sugar, so honeybees were exported from Europe to establish apiaries here. The honey and beeswax gathered were used for many purposes. Today, many advances have been made in this aspect of agriculture. Some people derive their income from their apiaries while many others keep honeybees as a hobby.
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THINKING ORGANIC?

REFINED PARAFFIN WAXES (RP WAX)

ONTARIO BEEKEEPERS ASSOCIATION (OBA)

INDUSTRIAL RAW MATERIALS LLC

Organic apiculture strives to manage systems with minimal intervention and healthy practices that protect the environment and maintain diversity, and does not allow the use of synthetic substances, such as pesticides. 
Paraffin waxes are derived from crude oil during the production of light (distillate) lubricating oils. These waxes are categorized by oil content and the degree of refinement. The crudest versions fall into the slack wax category and contain between 5% to 20% oil. Next on the step of refinement are scale waxes containing between 0.5% to 5% oil. 
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CLASSIFICATION OF REFINED PETROLEUM WAXES

WAX FACTS

AMERICAN FUEL & PETROCHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS (AFPM)

INDUSTRIAL RAW MATERIALS LLC

The word "wax" usually refers to a variety of organic substances that are solid at ambient temperature but become free-flowing liquids at slightly higher temperatures. The chemical composition of waxes is complex, but normal alkanes are always present in high proportion and molecular weight profiles tend to be wide. The main commercial source of wax is crude oil but not all crude oil refiners produce wax. "Mineral" wax can also be produced from lignite. Plants, animals and even insects produce materials sold in commerce as "wax."
It is difficult to draw up a classification of petroleum waxes that could not be subject to criticism. The classification here given is somewhat different from others that have been proposed; it comprises the various types of waxes produced in American refineries.
(1) Paraffin Wax Group
Softer paraffin waxes (e.g., slack waxes)
Intermediate paraffin waxes (e.g., scale waxes)
Harder paraffins (e.g., fully refined waxes)
(2) Petrolatums
(3) Microcrystalline Wax Group
Medium soft (e.g., “Petrowax”)
Medium hard (e.g., “Petrosene A”)
Hard (e.g., “Be Square 190/195”)
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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION WORSE THAN OUTDOOR

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BY DR. JOSH AXE

According to the EPA, our indoor environment is two to five times more toxic than our outdoor environment, and in some cases, the air measurements indoors have been found to be 100 times more polluted.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have concluded that 80% of all cancers are attributed to environmental rather than genetic factors, including exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, many of which are found in household cleaning products.
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BEESWAX: A MINI REVIEW OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN MEDICINE

DO FLAMES CONTAIN PLASMA?

BY DR. CHRISTOPHER S. BAIRD

In a flame, ionization of the air atoms occurs because the temperature is high enough to cause the atoms to knock into each other and rip off electrons. Therefore, in a flame, the amount of ionization depends on the temperature. (Other mechanisms can lead to ionization. For instance, in lightning, strong electric currents cause the ionization. In the ionosphere, sunlight causes the ionization.) The bottom line is that a flame only becomes a plasma if it gets hot enough. Flames at lower temperatures do not contain enough ionization to become a plasma. On the other hand, a higher-temperature flame does indeed contain enough freed electrons and ions to act as a plasma.

Filippo Fratini1, 2, , , 
Giovanni Cilia1, 
Barbara Turchi1, 
Antonio Felicioli1, 2
1 Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Viale delle Piagge 2, Italy
2 Interdepartmental Research Center, Nutraceuticals and Food for Health, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Italy

Beeswax is the substance that forms the structure of a honeycomb; the bees secrete wax to build the honeycombs where to store honey. Thanks to its rich hydrophobic protective properties, the beeswax is in fact present within cosmetics and body products. Also, beeswax is used in the food industry: as a film to wrap cheese for maturing or as a food additive (E901) to give shine to the products.
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FLAMES IN HORIZONTAL ELECTRIC FIELD, DEVIATION AND
OSCILLATION

​Veritasium.com

Rojin Anbarafshana
, Hossein Azizinaghshb
, Reza Montazeri Naminc
aRahe Roshd High School, I. R. Iran
b
Sharif University of Technology, School of Computer Engineering, I. R. Iran
c
Sharif University of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, I. R. Iran 

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Asymmetrical division of the flame in two branches deviating toward different plates, in
case where the flame is placed between two charged parallel metal plates, has been
observed and investigated in few resources. A suggested explanation is the difference
in the mass of the positive and negative ions existing in the flame [2, 3]. In some
investigations it is mentioned that the free electrons in the flame existing because of the
ionization tend to react with the surrounding air molecules in the presence of the electric
field [3]. 
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 What’s In A Candle Flame?

Is a flame really a plasma? Well it depends on your definition of plasma, but there are certainly ions in a flame, formed as molecules collide with each other at high speed, sometimes knocking electrons off of their atoms.